Why is bariatric surgery the last resort after diet and exercise have failed to shed off those kilos? This surgery curbs food intake by reducing the size of the stomach and this is how it operates on the principle of malabsorption.
A bariatric surgery is done for weight loss by restricting the amount of food in the stomach. The basic principle behind the bariatric surgery is to reduce the amount of food intake by reducing the size of the stomach. The bariatric surgery is the ultimate option when the patient has exhausted all other alternatives for weight loss. A bariatric surgeon will recommend the surgery only when exercise and diet regimen isn’t working for a patient.
Types of bariatric surgery :
The surgery is a combination of gastric restriction and malabsorption. It is for people with BMI 30 or higher and is a borderline obese which can turn into life-threatening diseases. There are two ways these weight loss surgeries are restrictive surgery where stomach size is reduced to hold up to one cup of food. The other is gastric bypass also known as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass which is both restrictive and malabsorption procedure it reduces the stomach size and also reduces the absorption in the small intestine. Both of the surgeries have their respective advantages and disadvantages.
Why is bariatric surgery performed?
The bariatric surgery is performed for people with BMI 30 or higher, who are obese and have exhausted all the options for weight loss. Obese people have sometimes have other medical conditions such as :
- High blood pressure
- Heart diseases such as stroke, etc.
- Gallbladder stones
- Gout and arthritis
- Breathing problems such a obstructive sleep apnea (disturbed breathing while sleeping), asthma, etc.
According to some studies, bariatric surgery is performed widely for people who are obese and have severe episodes of sleep apnea. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is defined as successive episodes of decrease or no sleep due to obstructive respiratory airflow. OSA is closely related to obesity which is an increase in body mass index (BMI).
OSA shows symptoms such as :
- Respiratory insufficiency
All this lead to pulmonary hypertension which can cause sudden death from cardiac arrest. OSA is reported to increase in patients who are suffering from obesity and other morbidities. Bariatric surgery is only recommended by the surgeon when available weight loss options have failed. OSA is confirmed by diagnosis with polysomnography (a study of sleep pattern done to diagnose and record the brain waves, sleep disorders, the oxygen level in the blood, heart rate, breathing and eye and leg movements.). The results are used for treatment purposes. The treatment is closely associated with weight loss and administration of positive airway pressure.
OSA is induced due to obstructive airway passage for breathing, which is a caused due to increase in weight where the sleep is disturbed due to episodes of breathlessness. It is proven that bariatric surgery is proven to be most effective for sustainable weight loss. In addition to weight loss, it improves OSA in a significant number of people.
The results show a substantial relationship between obesity and onset of OSA. Since the most effective option for obesity treatment is bariatric surgery, including OSA. Depending on the severity different types of bariatric surgery are performed resulting in treatment of obesity and other morbidities. 75% patients have proven that the surgery has improved their OSA and aided in weight loss too.
To sum up, OSA patients with obesity are good candidates for bariatric surgery. The impact of surgery is largely depended on the improvement of patient’s everyday life. Patients with chronic sleep disorders such as OSA are recommended to undergo a weight loss bariatric surgery. In the long run, people with subsequent morbidities such as diabetes, heart disorders with OSA, bariatric surgery is helpful. A close association of bariatric surgeons and sleep physicians is recommended.