Weather it is a or b hepatitis it is a severe infection of the liver and needs prompt medical attention. A change in the lifestyle with adequate rest and nutritious diet can also help significantly along with early diagnosis and medication.
Hepatitis B is a fatal and life threatening liver infection caused by the hepatitis virus(HBV),which infects 300 million people worldwide. It is a contagious disease,whose severity ranges from mild illness to severe illness.Based on the severity of the illness, Hepatitis b ,can be classified into 'Acute Hepatitis b' virus infection,that occurs within first 6 months of the exposure to the virus and 'Chronic hepatitis b' virus infection,which occurs,when the virus remains for long time inside the body.Other than Hepatitis B, there are various viral hepatitis such as hepatitis A, hepatitis C, Hepatitis D (delta), and Hepatitis E which also affect the liver, but caused by different viruses and the mode of transmission also varies.
MODE OF TRANSMISSION:
-BIRTH-from a chronically infected mother during the delivery of her child. -BLOOD-from infected blood through sharing of needle,syringes,razors,toothbrushes contaminated by blood,piercings etc -BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS -SEX-unprotected sex with the infected person. -HBV is not transmitted through food or water and also,do not spread through hugging,breastfeeding,sweat,sharing food,mosquitoes etc
SYMPTOMS:It varies for Acute hepatitis patients and Chronic Hepatitis patients.
ACUTE HEPATITIS B:symptoms usually occurs within 3 months of the exposure,but they can appear anytime between 6 weeks to 6 months.
- Low grade fever
- Malaise and fatigue
- Loss of appetite
- Joint and muscle pain
- nausea and vomiting
- Abdominal discomfort
- Yellow discolouration of the skin and the sclera
- Clay coloured faeces
- Dark coloured urine
CHRONIC HEPATITIS B:People who are tested as positive,for the hepatitis B virus for more than six months,are said to have a Chronic Hepatitis B infection. The symptoms tend to be mild than that of acute hepatitis and can vary from person to person.
The tests include HBsAg,HBeAg,anti-HBs,anti-HB core,Quantitative hepatitis B virus DNA,HBV genotype,Hepatitis delta virus(HDV) serology etc.The general liver investigations include FBC,Bilirubin,Liver enzymes,Clotting,Ferritin,Lipid profile,Autoantibody screen,Ceruloplasmin etc are also conducted.Liver Biopsy is suggested for patients with chronic hepatitis b.
Acute Hepatitis B: These patients do not require any treatment, but to follow the healthy lifestyle by -Resting -Drinking plenty of water -Maintain adequate nutrition.
Chronic Hepatitis B: Antiviral medications are used to treat chronic hepatitis B. Drugs like Roferon-A (interferon alfa-2a) or Intron A (interferon alfa-2b).Nucleoside analogues like Hepsera (adefovir) Baraclude (entecavir),Epivir (lamivudine),Tyzeka (telbivudine),Viread (tenofovir).Pegasys (peginterferon alfa-2a) or PegIntron (peginterferon alfa-2b) are also used. Liver transplant for the patients whose liver has been severely damaged is the final option for treating the chronic hepatitis B.
- Liver Cirrhosis-The inflammation associated with extensive liver scarring.
- Fibrosis-The liver is damaged by constant inflammation, creating scar tissue to repair itself.
- Cancer of the Liver
- Liver Failure
- Glomerulonephritis-kidney disorder caused by inflammation .
- Cryoglobulinemia-abnormal cluster of a kind of protein that blocks small blood vessels.
- Hepatic Encephalopathy-Liver failure can cause your brain to become inflamed.
- Portal Hypertension-blood cannot return to the liver from the digestive system.
- Porphyria-As seen by blistering on sun-exposed areas of the hand.
- 1Viral Co-Infection
POST PROCEDURE CARE:
For patients who have undergone liver transplant operation.
- Infections prevention-By Personal hygiene and wound care
- Check temperature and blood pressure,twice each day and also check weight every morning.
- Avoid Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen,Advil etc
- Physical Activity is encouraged as a lifelong habit, but should be resumed gradually.
- Do not lift, push or pull weights. 6)Driving/Travel should be avoided.